High Resolution Orthoimage (DOQ), Border Region of NW Minnesota, NE North Dakota, and Southern Manitoba, Canada, 2009

This page last updated: 04/02/2015
Metadata created using Minnesota Geographic Metadata Guidelines


Go to Section:
1. Overview
2. Data Quality
3. Data Organization
4. Coordinate System
5. Attributes
6. Distribution - Get Data
7. Metadata Reference

Section 1 Overview
Originator 3001, Inc., for the United States Geological Survey
Title High Resolution Orthoimage (DOQ), Border Region of NW Minnesota, NE North Dakota, and Southern Manitoba, Canada, 2009
Abstract This dataset consists of 0.3-meter pixel resolution (approximately 1-foot), natural color orthoimages covering the Border Region of NW Minnesota, NE North Dakota, and Southern Manitoba, Canada in 2009.

USGS originally delivered to MnGeo a collection of TIF files in either UTM Zone 14 (western portion) or Zone 15 (eastern portion) projections. MnGeo projected all tiles into UTM Zone 15 and loaded into the Minnesota Geospatial Image Service as a single layer.

An orthoimage (DOQ) is remotely sensed image data in which displacement of features in the image caused by terrain relief and sensor orientation have been mathematically removed. Orthoimagery combines the image characteristics of a photograph with the geometric qualities of a map. For this dataset, the natural color orthoimages were produced at 0.3-meter pixel resolution (approximately 1-foot). The design accuracy is estimated not to exceed 6 meter horizontal RMSE (root mean square error) for locations within the United States. Each orthoimage provides imagery for a 1500-meter by 1500-meter block on the ground. The projected coordinate system is UTM with a NAD83 datum, spheroid GRS80. There is no image overlap between adjacent files. The naming convention is based on the U.S. National Grid (USNG), taking the coordinates of the SW corner of the orthoimage.

MnGeo metadata is based on metadata provided by 3001, Inc., for the Zone 15 and Zone 14 tile datasets.
Purpose These data have been created as a result of the need for having geospatial data immediately available and easily accessible in order to provide geographic reference for federal, state, and local emergency responders, as well as for homeland security efforts. Orthoimages also serve a variety of purposes, from interim maps to field references for earth science investigations and analysis. The digital orthoimage is useful as a layer of a geographic information system. These data can be used to provide reference information for web browsers and for map applications at a scale of 1:100:000 or smaller.
Time Period of Content Date 07/2009
Currentness Reference Ground condition.
Progress Complete
Maintenance and Update Frequency Irregular
Spatial Extent of Data Eastern Roseau County and Kittson County, Minnesota, Cavalier and Pembina Counties, North Dakota, Southern Manitoba, Canada
Bounding Coordinates -99.00
-96.00
49.2
48.5
Place Keywords Minnesota, MN, North Dakota, ND, Manitoba, Canada, MB, Roseau County, Kittson County, Cavalier County, Pembina County
Theme Keywords imageryBaseMapsEarthCover, Digital Orthorectified Image, Digital Orthophoto Quad, Ortho, Orthophoto, DOQ, Air Photo, Air Photography, Aerial Photo, Aerial Photography
Theme Keyword Thesaurus ISO 19115 Topic Category
Access Constraints Any downloading and use of these data signifies a users agreement to comprehension and compliance of the U.S. Government Standard Disclaimer. Insure all portions of metadata are read and clearly understood before using these data in order to protect both user and U.S. Government interests.
Use Constraints There is no guarantee of warranty concerning the accuracy of the data. Users should be aware that temporal changes may have occurred since this data set was collected and that some parts of this data may no longer represent actual surface conditions. Users should not use this data for critical applications without a full awareness of its limitations. Acknowledgement of the originating agencies would be appreciated in products derived from these data. Any user who modifies the data is obligated to describe the types of modifications they perform. User specifically agrees not to misrepresent the data, nor to imply that changes made were approved or endorsed by the U.S. Government.
Contact Person Information Nancy Rader, GIS Data Coordinator
Minnesota Geospatial Information Office (MnGeo)
658 Cedar Street, Room 300
St. Paul, MN  55155
Phone: 651-201-2489
Email: gisinfo.mngeo@state.mn.us
Browse Graphic None available
Associated Data Sets For information on other air photos available for Minnesota, see http://www.mngeo.state.mn.us/chouse/airphoto/index.html

Section 2 Data Quality
Attribute Accuracy Sample points taken from overlapping areas of adjacent image strips that contributed image chips to each orthophoto tile are typically consistent to the 2-3 pixel level. This not only ensures that a consistent mosaic can be created from the adjacent image strips acquired with the ADS40-II pushbroom scanner but also means that the images have good precision and as a group are spatially self-consistent.
Logical Consistency Compliance with the accuracy standard was ensured by the use of photo identifiable ground control points and/or the collection of airborne GPS data.
Completeness Complete
Horizontal Positional Accuracy The accuracy value for locations within the United States was determined by measuring photo-identifiable control points collected with GPS survey methods in the orthophotos.
Lineage Processing information provided by 3001, Inc.:

Ground control consisted of photo identifiable surveyed points within the United States. The imagery was collected at an average altitude of 9500 ft above mean terrain (AMT) using an ADS40-II digital sensor. Image quality was verified during the post flight review phase. Factors considered during this review included but were not limited to the presence of smoke and/or cloud cover, contrails, light conditions and sun glint.

The triangulated strips were rectified with a recent digital surface model (DSM) of the area provided as GFI (SRTM2, DTED2, Intermap NEXTmap USA, Canada NED, Mexican Border Lidar), and supplemented with higher resolution DSM data where readily available. The vertical accuracy of the DSM varies based on the elevation postings of GFI products and requirements thereof.

The red, green, and blue bands were combined to generate a natural color orthophoto. The ADS40-II sensor collects twelve bit image data which requires radiometric adjustment for output in standard eight bit image channels. Converting to eight bit results in a reduction of the color range from 4096 to 256 - thus loss of radiometric detail is inevitable. The extra dynamic range of the sensor permits greater object differentiation in shadows and in bright areas. The twelve bit dynamic range permitted the imagery to be more effectively color balanced than is possible with eight bit imagery. This was accomplished by performing tonal enhancements immediately prior to the reduction from twelve bit to eight bit data. In addition to color balancing, these eight bit images were adjusted to create seamless imagery to the highest extent practically achievable. The imagery was mosaicked using a combination of automated and manual seamline generation. Project specified tiles were extracted from the mosaic to produce a natural color digital orthophoto image map.

Final image tiles were reviewed for artifacts and anomalies and adjusted as part of quality control procedures. When necessary, local corrections to the imagery were performed to minimize such effects.

Processing by MnGeo:

Data delivered to MnGeo by USGS included TIF image tiles in Zone 14 (for western portion of region) and TIF image tiles in Zone 15 (for eastern portion of region). MnGeo internal metadata describes map extents for Zone 14 and Zone 15 datasets. Selected data tiles were loaded into the Minnesota Geospatial Image Service. Initially there were two layers in the service - one for each UTM Zone. Ultimately tiles were projected to UTM Zone 15 and reloaded into the Minnesota Geospatial Image Service as a single (Zone 15) layer.

Section 3 Spatial Data Organization (not used in this metadata)

Section 4 Coordinate System
Horizontal Coordinate Scheme Universal Transverse Mercator
UTM Zone Number 15
Horizontal Datum NAD83
Horizontal Units meters
Cell Width 0.3
Cell Height 0.3

Section 5 Attributes
Overview Natural color orthoimagery is organized in three color bands or channels which represent the red, green, and blue (RGB) portions of the spectrum. Each image pixel is assigned a triplet of numeric values, one for each color band. Numeric values range from 0 to 255. Areas where data are incomplete due to lack of full image coverage are represented with the numeric value of 0.
Detailed Citation
Table Detail:

Section 6 Distribution
Publisher Minnesota Geospatial Information Office (MnGeo)
Publication Date 2009
Contact Person Information Nancy Rader, GIS Data Coordinator
Minnesota Geospatial Information Office (MnGeo)
658 Cedar Street
St. Paul, MN  55155
Phone: 651-201-2489
Email: gisinfo.mngeo@state.mn.us
Distributor's Data Set Identifier base_nwborder_2009_wms_airphotos
Distribution Liability 1. USGS: There is no guarantee of warranty concerning the accuracy of the data. Users should be aware that temporal changes may have occurred since this data set was collected and that some parts of this data may no longer represent actual surface conditions. Users should not use this data for critical applications without a full awareness of its limitations. Acknowledgement of the originating agencies would be appreciated in products derived from these data. Any user who modifies the data is obligated to describe the types of modifications they perform. User specifically agrees not to misrepresent the data, nor to imply that changes made were approved or endorsed by the U.S. Government.

2. MnGeo's data disclaimer is online: http://www.mngeo.state.mn.us/chouse/disclaimer.html
Ordering Instructions The imagery is available to view as a WMS via MnGeo's Geospatial Image Service. The Geospatial Image Service web pages provide information for connecting to the server as well as information on how to use WMS Services. Due to file size there is currently no option to download the photos.

Access via the Minnesota Geospatial Commons by clicking on the "Online Linkage" field below.
Online Linkage I AGREE to the notice in "Distribution Liability" above. Clicking to agree will either begin the download process, link to a service, or provide more instructions. See "Ordering Instructions" above for details.

Section 7 Metadata Reference
Metadata Date 04/02/2015
Contact Person Information Nancy Rader, GIS Data Coordinator
Minnesota Geospatial Information Office (MnGeo)
658 Cedar Street
St. Paul, MN  55155
Phone: 651-201-2489
Email: gisinfo.mngeo@state.mn.us
Metadata Standard Name Minnesota Geographic Metadata Guidelines
Metadata Standard Version 1.2
Metadata Standard Online Linkage http://www.mngeo.state.mn.us/committee/standards/mgmg/metadata.htm


This page last updated: 04/02/2015
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